Cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in many countries. Especially in low-income or middle-income countries, the death rate may reach up to 70% due to cancer. According to the stats, African region patients have the shortest survival rates and minor positive outcomes from cancer worldwide. There are many reasons like biological, sociocultural, racial, socioeconomic factors leading to the deteriorated health condition there. Moreover, according to GLOBOCAN 2018 estimate, there are approximately 36 varieties of cancer in 47 African countries. The death rate due to cancer reached up to 7.3% and cases 4.5% of the overall world population.
What is pre-cancer?
Every year, many people display precancerous conditions, which are identified by pre-cancer diagnosis. Moreover, you may not be aware, but the health issues related to cancer may not become deadly if they are diagnosed and treated early. When pre-cancer cells remain unchecked or untreated, they may become cancerous, ultimately causing unlikely health issues or even deaths. However, most of you might be unaware of this pre-cancer condition. In simpler terms to understand, pre-cancer cells are the cells spotted by the medical professionals during an examination, showcasing abnormal growth. Here abnormal growth implies the difference in appearance in shape or size, which makes them look varied from the normal cells. Besides, there is nothing alarming about the outgrowth of these abnormal cells, as there are pre-cancer treatments to destroy these cells.
Do all the pre-cancer cells lead to cancer?
Many patients start panicking after diagnosing pre-cancer cells, thinking they may have cancer now. But usually, it is uncertain whether precancerous cells become cancerous or not as they may or may not become malignant. With the use of modern equipment and technology, it has become easier to identify pre-cancer cells. These cells require regular monitoring so that if the cell grows or requires treatment, the practitioner may start with the pre-cancer treatment immediately to hinder its further development.
Kinds precancerous situations
In case you don’t get pre-cancer treatment on time, the below premalignant condition of cells may develop into cancerous cells. These are the most common situations that eventually become the leading causes of death of cancer patients.
- Bronchial Epithelial Dysplasia: This type of precancerous situation develops into the lungs.
- Atypical Lobular Hyperplasia: These types of pre-cancer cells eventually leads to breast cancer (women or men’s breast cancer)
- CIN (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia): This type of condition may lead to cervical cancer.
- Atrophic gastritis: These types of conditions may lead to cancer in the stomach (gastric).
- Liver Cirrhosis: This is the premalignant condition that leads to Hepatocellular Carcinoma. HCC is among the primary liver malignancies, which is the 3rd leading cause of death due to cancer in Africa.
- Adenomatous polyps: This type of precancerous condition in the colon may lead to colon cancer in the future.
Factors responsible for conversion of a normal cell into precancerous cells
There are numerous factors due to which cells convert into precancerous cells. There are natural carcinogens or artificial carcinogens which cause damage to the cell and may transform the cells into pre-cancer cells. Apart from carcinogens, specific hormonal changes or even stress may sometimes develop these pre-tumors. The infections causing viruses, parasites, and bacteria, leads to inflammation in cells and can develop cervix or stomach precancerous cells.
Chronic inflammations like GERD, IBD, oesophagus inflammation, etc., can lead to precancerous conditions in prolonged cases. People have been diagnosed with oesophageal cancer, colon cancer, Barrett’s esophagus due to such inflammations. Besides the natural carcinogens, tobacco, industrial or air pollution, which causes chronic irritation becomes primary reasons for the development. The developed precancerous cells can progress into lung cancer as well.
Symptoms of precancerous cells
In some cases, precancerous cells may reflect symptoms, while it may not vividly be seen in others. For instance, in the case of precancerous cervix changes, you may witness uterine bleeding abnormally. The breast cancer symptoms like lump formation, thickening of the breast, blood discharge from nipples or change in their appearance, etc., reflects the development of precancerous cells. Hence, your body gives signals related to an abnormal activity taking place within your cells.
One must regularly get their check-up done so that if there is any cell showing abnormal characteristics, it can be diagnosed in the pre-cancer diagnosis. In order to reduce the risk factor, you must consult an oncologist. The treatment generally depends on the position or location of the precancerous cells. Surgeries and cryotherapy are the most common cancer treatments which reflect positive outcomes. However, in some cases, cancer treatment in India includes chemoprevention, which reduces the future development of abnormal cells. Moreover, Indian researchers are inventing various medications and several vitamins which can hinder the growth of precancerous cells. They are utilizing these alternatives to witness the effect on current and former smokers.
Thus, you can find the best cancer treatment facilities in India, including pre-cancer diagnosis to treat and eradicate these cells.